Chemistry HSC Syllabus – Maharashtra HSC Board
According to NCF 2005, the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stage. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at the state level and the national level. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology, etc, after the +2 stage. The syllabus is comparable to the international level.
The syllabus contains areas like physical, organic, inorganic, industrial, analytical and polymer chemistry. The upgraded syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements, compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. New nomenclature, symbols and formulations, fundamental concepts, modern techniques are given importance.
The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Higher Secondary stage are to help the learners:
1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of chemistry.
2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine, engineering, technology) at tertiary level.
3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
4) To equip students to face various changes related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
5) To develop problem solving skills in students.
6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications.
7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering, etc.
Std 12th (Theory)
Chemistry HSC Syllabus
Unit 1: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different forces; molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Unit 2: Solutions and colligative properties
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure, Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass. Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it.
Unit 3: Chemical thermodynamics and energetic
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, Hess’ law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, and equilibrium constant. Second and third law of thermodynamics.
Unit 4: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell –electrolytic and galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.
Unit 5: Chemical kinetics
Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit 6: General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
Unit 7: p-Block elements
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phoshorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous; preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3 ,PCl5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses;
Classification of oxides, simple oxides; Ozone.
Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphurc acid; industrial process of manufacture, properties anduses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit 8: d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements –
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states. Comparison wit lanthanoids.
Unit 9: Coordination compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory, VBT, CFT. isomerism, (structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes)
Haloalkanes :Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configuration
Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configurations. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, thrichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit 11 : Alcohols, phenols and ethers Alcohols :
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electro phillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit 12 : Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids Aldehydes and ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit 13: Organic compounds containing nitrogen
Nitro compounds- General methods of preparation and chemical reactions
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates:
Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance. Proteins: Elementary idea of α -amino acids, peptide, linkage, polypeptides, proteins; structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation ofproteins; enzymes. Lipids and hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure, their classification and functions. Vitamins: Classification and functions. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Unit 15: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber. Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.
Unit 16: Chemistry in everyday life :
- Chemicals in medicines : analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants
- Chemicals in food : Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
- Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Chemistry Practical HSC Syllabus – Std. 12th Maharashtra HSC Board
A. Chemical Kinetics
(Any one of the following) :
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2 SO3 ) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
(c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.
Any one of the following experiments:
i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH).
iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.
iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn.
Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration).
D. Chromatography (demonstration)
(i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
(ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided.
E. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
(i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
(ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
F. Preparation of Organic Compounds
(ii) Aniline yellow or 2- Napthol aniline dye.
(iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride.
(v) Di-benzal acetone
G. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.
H. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.
I. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
i) Oxalic acid
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
J. Qualitative analysis
1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts.
2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts.
Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,NH4+,
Anions – CO3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-, NO2 – NO3 , Cl– , Br– , I– , PO4 3- C2 O4 2- CH3 COO–
(Note : Insoluble salts excluded.)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects:
1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
3 Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc).
5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of pH and temperature on it.
6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.
7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
8 Study of common food adulterants in fat, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note : Any investigatory project, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
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