Geography Syllabus of CBSE Board 

CBSE Board Syllabus – Geography Class 12 

Geography cbse syllabus 12

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography:

  • Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People

  • Population-distribution,density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries.
  • Quatenary activities – concept; people engaged in quatenary activities – case study from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade

  • Land transport – roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
  • Water transport – inland waterways; major ocean routes.
  • Air transport – Intercontinental air routes.
  • Oil and gas pipelines.
  • Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.
  • International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
  • Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human settlements

Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.

B. India: People and Economy

Unit 6: People

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
  • Population, environment and development.

Unit 7: Human Settlements

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution.
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 8: Resources and Development

  • Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
  • Water resources – availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.
  • Mineral and energy resources – distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
  • Industries – types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
  • Planning in India – target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
  • International trade – changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems

  • Environmental pollution; urban – waste disposal.
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
  • Land degradation.

Map Work

  • Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.

C. Practical Work


Class 12 Syllabus –CBSE Board 


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