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- Maria Montessori was born in Chiaravalle, in Italy on 31st August 1870. In spite of discouragement from all quarters, Maria became the first woman medical graduate from the University of Rome. In those days women were not enrolled at medical colleges. After her medical education she was made in charge of an Institute for mentally retarded children. In those days people believed that mentally retarded should not learn anything. So, no one taught them anythingeven simple things like attending to their needs and changing their dresses. During her work in the institution, Maria observed these children very carefully and saw that these children seemed to find out for themselves about many things. They would reach out for anything they found, turn it around, see its shape, etc. She concluded that, given proper training and attention, these children could be taught to take care of basic needs and also some of them cou Maria taught the children to distinguish between colours, sound, smells and tastes. She made frames with button holes and buttons to teach children how to tie shoe laces. Her methods worked well and soon the children were able to do many things on their own. Maria thought that her method could be extended to be useful to ordinary children too. So, Maria opened the first school in the slums of Rome for children between three and six years. She called her school „Casa Di Bambini‟ (Italian for “Children‟s House”). She applied her medical and psychological knowledge and experience for proper training of normal children. She noted that when a child is really interested in the exercise he had chosen, he would become completely absorbed and could not be distracted. The child, thus, learnt from actually what it was doing. Dr. Maria found that children were ready for different tasks at different stages and that they needed the right exercise at the right state. A Montessori teacher‟s job was not to tell children what to do but to recognise in what state the child was and to guide him. Also, children should be free to move about. They should not be pinned to their seats. Children became self-reliant and independent with this method. The children were not given any punishment in a Montessori School because even if a child behaved badly at first, when he became engrossed in the activity of his choice, he would be quiet and settle down. Maria believed that all human beings passed through certain set stages of psychological development. Differences were mainly because of the opportunities offered by the environment in which they were brought up as a child.
- Where was Maria Montessori born?
- Maria, during her works in the institution concluded that a) mentally retarded children cannot be taught anything b) they are unmanageable c) they could be taught to take care of basic needs. (Choose the correct answer and rewrite it)
- Where did Maria open the first school for normal children?
- What does “Casa Di Bambini” mean in the passage?
- When is a child completely absorbed in learning things, according to Maria?
- How did her method of teaching become effective on children?
- A Montessori teacher’s job is a) to tell the children what to do b) to recognise in which stage the child is and to guide him c) to pin the students to their seats
- Why are the children not given punishment?
- Maria believed that all human beings passed through certain stages of ……….. (Fill in the blank with appropriate words from the passage)
- The success of a major operation depends in large part on the intensive post-operative care of the patient. Because of prolonged anesthesia and extensive surgical trauma, the patient is often in worse shape after the operation than before. The first few days after an operation are the most dangerous. During this critical period, the patient is under constant surveillance in the post-anesthetic recovery room or in an intensive care unit. Specially trained nurses and doctors use electronic monitoring devices to detect deviations in the patient’s vital functions. The medical staff is also alert to signs of lung complications that frequently follow major surgery. Venous stenosis, or the slow-up of blood flow in the veins — a consequence of bed confinement — is prevented by exercising the patient’s limbs and varying his position in bed. Closed circuit television cameras allow constant observation of the patient and monitoring devices linked with computers sound a warning when dangerous complications occur, but the keen senses of a skilled nurse are still required to ensure the best after care of the sick.
A)What does the success of a major operation depend on ?
b)How are the vital functions of the patient detected after the surgery ?
c)What is venous stenosis ?
d)Why is the patient often in worse shape after the operation than before ?
e)Find one word for the following from the passage :
f)Close watch kept on someone.
- You are Director General of Health Services. You want to invite people to come forward for eye donation. Draft a poster for the same in about 50 words.
- As a regular commuter by bus from Noida to Delhi, you have been witnessing rash driving by the bus drivers daily without an exception. Write a letter to The Editor, ‘The Times of India’ in about 120 to 150 words drawing the attention of the General.
- Manager, Delhi Transport Corporation to this problem. You are Praveen I Priya, of 15 Udyog Vihar, Noida.
- You are Ben I Brinda of Class XII of Tejas International School, Vijay Nagar, Hyderabad. Write a letter to the Manager of Action Sports Store, Meerut, in about 120 to 150 words complaining about the defective stop watches you purchased from their store. Write as Sports Secretary of your school.
- You are Rohan/Renuka, Head Boy/Head Girl of Goenka Public School, Bandra, Mumbai. You are asked to prepare a debate in 150- 200 words in favour of the motion,”The use of mobile phones has lowered (our) active social life and has become an addiction.”
- Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly on the topic, ‘Obesity among School Children’. You are Mohini /Mohit.
- With the onset of the monsoons, the mosquitoes have also arrived. Radha Saxena decides to write an article for her school magazine about the mosquito menace and the popular ways in which people protect themselves against it. Write the article in 150 – 200 words.
- You are advertising in-charge of an agency. Draft a commercial advertisement within 50 words, for a dance academy, for children between 5-18 years to be published in a local daily. Include all details of the academy.
- As the Principal of Gayatri Devi Sr. Sec. School, New Delhi, which is holding its 40th Founder’s Day Celebrations on Nov. 12th 2016, design an invitation card to be sent to parents and other invitees. The S.P. City, has agreed to be the Chief Guest on the occasion.
- You purchased some sports items from MIS Gaba Sports, Nehru Nagar, Delhi for your school. On delivery you found that some of the items are defective and need replacement. Draft a letter complaining against the defective items and request for immediate replacement. You are Rajesh Sharma, Sports in charge, Raj Public School, Muradabad.
- “Now we will count to twelve And we will all keep still. For once on the face of the Earth let’s not speak in any language, let’s stop for one second, and not move our arms so much.”
- a) Name the poem and the poet.
b) How long does the poet want to stay still?
c) What does he hope to achieve by keeping quiet?
d) What does the poet mean by ‘not move our arms’ so much?
- “A flowery band to bind us to the Earth, Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth Of noble natures, of the gloomy days, Of all the unhealthy and o’er -darkened ways Made for our searching.”a) Why are we despondent?
b) What removes ‘the pall from our dark spirits?
c) Explain ‘the inhuman dearth of noble natures.’
d) Name the poem and the poet.
- up in a hawthorn tree a robin perched, where he could see into a coop of wire and wood. Inside a coop a framer stood flinging grain upon the ground. Twelve fat chickens gathered round. The robin, singing, cocked its head and watched the chickens being fed. He saw it was a lucky thing to be a chicken: Farmers bring you golden grain, scoop after scoop, if you’re a chicken in a coop , a lovely coop with nesting boxes safe from cats and crows and foxes.The chickens in the coop could see the bird. They heard his melody and clucked it was a lucky thing to be a robin who could sing a song upon a hawthorn tree. They watched him through the woven wire. They saw him fly up high, and higher. Twelve fat chickens scratched the floor. The farmer closed And latched the door.
a) What is the theme of the poem?
b) What is the chickens’ attitude towards the robin?
c) Why did the farmer close and latch the door after feeding the chickens?
d) From what three predators are the chickens safe?
e) Which other relationship mentioned in the poem is most similar to the relationship between the coop and the chicken?
f) How does the poet make her point in the poem?
- a) Name the poem and the poet.
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