State the general characteristics of transition elements or d-block elements

Characteristics of transition elements:

i. Most of the transition elements are metals and thereby they show metallic properties such as ductility, malleability, electrical conductivity, high tensile strength and metallic luster.

ii. Except mercury which is liquid at room temperature, other transition elements have typical metallic structures.

iii. Their compounds generally contain unpaired electrons, hence they are paramagnetic in nature and form coloured compounds.

iv. They show variable oxidation states.

v. They have tendency to form large number of complexes.

vi. They have higher densities as compared to the metals of groups 1 and 2 (s-block).

vii. They are heavy metals with higher melting and boiling point as well as higher heats of vaporisation.

viii. Transition elements are less reactive than s-block elements due to their higher ionisation energy.

ix. Most of the transition metals such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, V, Pt, etc., and their compounds are used as catalysts. x. They have good thermal and electrical conductivity.

xi. They form alloys with different metals.

xii. They form interstitial compounds with elements such as hydrogen, boron, carbon, nitrogen, etc.

xiii. They form organometallic compounds.

Explain the metallic characters of the d-block elements.

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