Give characteristics of solid state.

The solid state is characterized by the following properties:

i. Solids have definite mass, volume, shape and density. Usually, the density of solid state is greater than the density of liquid and gaseous state. Water and mercury are exceptions. The density of ice (solid state of water) is lower than the density of liquid state of water. The density of mercury (which exists in liquid state) is very high (13.6 g mL-1 ).

ii. Solids are usually hard, incompressible and rigid. Some solids like sodium, potassium and phosphorous are exceptions; they are soft. Solids cannot be compressed because the intermolecular distance of separation between neighbouring molecules is very small.

iii. In a solid state, intermolecular forces of attraction between the constituent particles are stronger than those present in liquid and gaseous states.

iv. All pure solids have characteristic melting points which depend on the extent of intermolecular forces present in the solid state. Stronger the intermolecular forces of attraction, higher is the melting point of the solid. Weaker the intermolecular forces of attraction, the lower is its melting point. Hence, depending on the intermolecular forces of attraction, melting points of the different solids range from almost absolute zero (helium) to a few thousand Kelvin (diamond).

v. The intermolecular forces of attraction hold the constituent particles of the solids tightly. Hence the particles cannot change their positions and remain stationary at one position. Therefore, solids cannot flow like liquids.

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