*Physics HSC Syllabus – Maharashtra Board*

*Class 12th *

*Class 12th*

*Introduction *

* According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stage throughout India. *

* This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added.*

*Objectives*

*Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.**Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards.**Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning.**Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/ content within the discipline and other disciplines.**Promotion of process-skills, problem solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts.**Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject.**Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications.**Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners.**Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.**Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.*

*Physics HSC Syllabus – Maharashtra HSC Board *

*Circular motion.*

*Angular displacement, Angular velocity and angular acceleration, Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity, Uniform circular motion, Radial acceleration, Centripetal and centrifugal forces, Banking of roads, Vertical circular motion due to earth’s gravitation, Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.*

*Gravitation.*

*Newton’s law of gravitation, Projection of satellite, Periodic time, Statement of Kepler’s laws of motion, Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite, Weightlessness condition in orbit, Variation of ‘g’ due to altitude, lattitude, depth and motion, Communication satellite and its uses.*

*Rotational motion*

*Definition of M.I., K.E. of rotating body, Rolling motion, Physical significance of M.I., Radius of gyration, Torque, Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes, M.I. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes, Angular momentum and its conservation.*

*Oscillations*

*Explanation of periodic motion, S.H.M., Differential equation of linear S.H.M. Projection of U.C.M. on any diameter, Phase of S.H.M., K.E. and P.E. in S.H.M., Composition of two S.H.M.’s having same period and along same line, Simple pendulum, Damped S.H.M.*

*Elasticity*

*General explanation of elastic property, Plasticity, Deformation, Definition of stress and strain, Hooke’s law, Poisson’s ratio, Elastic energy, Elastic constants and their relation, Determination of ‘Y’, Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load, Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.*

**Surface tension**

*Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory, Surface energy, Surface tension, Angle of contact, Capillarity and capillary action, Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.*

*Wave motion*

*Simple harmonic progressive waves, Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves, Change of phase, Superposition of waves, Formation of beats, Doppler effect in sound. 8. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium, Formation of stationary waves on string, Study of vibrations of air columns, Free and Forced vibrations, Resonance.*

*Stationary waves*

* Study of vibrations in a finite medium, Formation of stationary waves on string, Study of vibrations of air columns, Free and Forced vibrations, Resonance.*

*Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation*

* Concept of an ideal gas, Assumptions of kinetic theory, Mean free path, Derivation for pressure of a gas, Degrees of freedom, Derivation of Boyle’s law, Thermodynamics- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature, 1st law of thermodynamics, 2nd law of thermodynamics, Heat engines and refrigerators, Qualitative idea of black body radiation,Wein’s displacement law, Green house effect, Stefan’s law, Maxwell distribution, Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases.*

*Wave theory of light*

* Wave theory of light, Huygens’ Principle, Construction of plane and spherical wave front, Wave front and wave normal, Reflection at plane surface, Refraction at plane surface, Polarisation, Polaroids, Plane polarised light, Brewster’s law, Doppler effect in light.*

*Interference and diffraction*

* Interference of light, Conditions for producing steady interference pattern, Young’s experiment, Analytical treatment of interference bands, Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment, Diffraction due to single slit, Rayleigh’s criterion, Resolving power of a microscope and telescope, Difference between interference and diffraction. *

*Electrostatics Gauss’*

*Theorem proof and applications, Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor, Energy density of a medium, Dielectrics and electric polarisation, Concept of condenser, Capacity of parallel plate condenser, Effect of dielectric on capacity, Energy of charged condenser, Condensers in series and parallel, van-deGraaff generator.*

**Current electricity**

*Kirchhoff’s law, Wheatstone’s bridge, Meter bridge, Potentiometer. *

**Magnetic effects of electric current**

*Ampere’s law and its applications, Moving coil galvanometer, Ammeter, Voltmeter, Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer, Cyclotron.*

**Magnetism**

* Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole, Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron, Magnetisation and magnetic intensity, Dia-magnetism, Para-magnetism, Ferro-magnetism on the basis of domain theory, Curie temperature.*

**Electromagnetic inductions**

* Laws of electromagnetic induction, proof of, e = – dØ dt Eddy currents, Self induction and mutual induction, Need for displacement current, Transformer, Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction, Alternating currents, Reactance and impedance, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a.c circuit with resistance, inductance and capacitance, Resonant circuit, Wattless current, AC generator.*

**17. Electrons and photons **

*Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations, Einstein’s equation, Particle nature of light. *

__18. Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei __

*Alpha particle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom. Bohr’s model, Hydrogen spectrum, Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, Decay law, massenergy relation, mass defect, B.E. per nucleon and its variation with mass number, Nuclear fission and fusion, de Broglie hypothesis, Matter waves – wave nature of particles, Wavelength of an electron, Davisson and Germer experiment, Continuous and characteristics X-rays.*

__19. Semiconductors__

*Energy bands in solids, Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, P-type and Ntype semiconductor, P-N junction diode, I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, Rectifiers, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Photodiode, Solar cell, I-V characteristics of LED, Transistor action and its characteristics, Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode), Transistor as a switch, Oscillators and Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR)*

*20. Communication systems*

*Elements of communication system, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium, Need for modulation, Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave, space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.*

*list of practical- std 12 physics syllabus- Maharashtra hsc board*

*To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.**To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T2 –m graph using method of oscillations.**To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.**To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve.**To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer.**To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.**To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.**To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.**To verify the laws of combination (series/ parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.**To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer.**To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer.**To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge.**To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.**To study the characteristics of a common emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.**To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breaks down voltage.*

__list of practical- std 12 physics syllabus- Maharashtra hsc board__

*To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.**To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise.**To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.**To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded*

*(i) at its end *

*(ii) in the middle. *

*To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.**To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.**To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/ rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.**To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D.R.**To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and 1C, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.**Use of multimeter to*

*(i) identify base of transistor *

*(ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, *

*(iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED *

*(iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC) is in working order. *

*To observe polarization of light using two polaroids.**To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.*

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