Organisation of Commerce – HSC Syllabus Maharashtra HSC Board.
Now it becomes necessary to give formal, traditional, recent education in Commerce and Industry along with practical knowledge so as to enable the students to have good understanding of the basic concepts of globalised world and its relationship with the society.
Council of Boards of School Education in India ( COBSE) has taken the responsibility of bringing out ‘Common contents in commerce’ at + 2 stages of secondary level. It is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. Information Technology is becoming a part of educational operations. Computerized systems are fast and replacing other systems. This curriculum will prepare students to analyse, manage, evaluate and respond to change which affects seriously. It provides a way of looking at and interacting with the business environment.
This syllabi introduces 80-20 pattern of evaluation. Comprising 80 marks Theory and 20 marks practical being need of the time. Practical approach is introduced. After doing a comparative study of syllabi of different Boards like C.B.S.E, ICSE, regarding their syllabi at + 2 level, this curriculum is prepared which shows common contents in commerce at the national level. The suggestions and recommendations received from various Boards regarding commerce subjects are considered in this curriculum. It allows students to appreciate that business is an integral component of society and develops an understanding of many social and ethical issues. Besides, it also informs students of a range of study and work options and bridge the gap between Secondary and Higher secondary education.
- To develop student’s understanding of the .
- Processes of business and its environment.
- To acquaint students with the dynamic nature and inter – dependent aspects of business.
- To help the students understand the economic and social significance of business activity.
- To acquaint students with the practice of managing the operations and resources of business.
- To enable the students to be aware of socio – economic and ethical dimensions of business.
- To acquire with the knowledge of new trends in the field of business.
- To enhance the interest of students while doing the practical work like projects.
- To acquire the knowledge of nature and scope of business, small business.
- To understand private, public and global enterprises including Internal trade.
- To know about international business.
- To understand about business environment.
- To know about marketing process.
- To understand the nature and significance of management.
1) This syllabus is prepared according to the guidelines of N.C.F 2005.
2) This syllabus is compared with CBSE and ICSE Board – XI and XII syllabi pattern.
3) The instructions introduced in N.C.F. – 2005 are included in this syllabus.
4) While considering the N.C.F. 2005 it is observed that in XI-syllabi unit No. 7 and 8 and in XII syllabi unit No. 9 and 10, are already included in the subject-Secretarial Practice in the current syllabus. In view of this, to avoid the repetation of the above mentioned units of Stds. XI and XII these topics are deleated.
5) CBSE and ICSE BOARDS DO NOT have the subjects ‘Secretarial Practice’ and ‘Cooperation’. These subjects are available only in Maharashtra State. Hence, the Board of studies proposes that no change is necessary in S.P. and Co-operation as these are newly constructed (Except, Business Finance to be included in S.P.) subjects.
UNIT-1 Forms of business organizations.
Sole proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family Business – meaning, features, merits and demerits.
Partnership – meaning, types, registration, merits, limitations, types of partners.
Co – Operative societies – types, merits and limitations. Company – Private Ltd, Public Ltd – merits, limitations.
Starting a business – Basic factors.
Choice of forms of business organizations.
UNIT-2 Business services
Nature and types of Business services – Banking, Insurance, Transportation, Warehousing, communication.
Banking – types of banks, functions of commercial banks, E – banking. Insurance – principles & types of life, fire, marine insurances.
Postal and Telecom services. Warehousing – types and functions. Transport – meaning, role, means.
UNIT -3 Emerging modes of Business
E – business – Meaning, Scope and benefits. Resource required for successful E –Business implementation.On – line transactions, payment mechanism.
Security and safety of business transactions.
Outsourcing – Concept, need and scope.
UNIT-4 Social Responsibilities of business and business ethics.
Concept of social responsibility.
Cases for social responsibility.
Responsibility towards different interest groups, owners, investors, employees, consumers, government, community, public in general.
Business ethics – concept and elements. Business and environmental protection.
UNIT-5 Consumer protection
Importance of consumer protection.
Rights of consumers Consumer responsibilities.
Ways and means of consumer protection.
Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer Protection Act.
Role of Consumer Organization and NGOS.
UNIT-6 Principles of Management
Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.
Fayol’s Principles of Management.
Taylor’s scientific management – Principles and Techniques.
UNIT-7 Functions of Management
Planning – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
Organizing – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
Staffing – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
Directing – Meaning, Nature, Importance. Controlling – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
Co – ordinating – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
UNIT-8 Entrepreneurship Development
Concept, Functions and Need.
Entrepreneurship: Characteristics and Competencies.
Process of entrepreneurship development.
Entrepreneurship Values: Attitudes and Motivation- Meaning and concept.
(Based on Std. XII Syllabus) List of Topics for projects.
1. An interview of sole trader
2. Partnership firm :- process & procedure
3. Joint Hindu family – An affectionate business
4. Collection of Common seals of different Joint stock companies and the relevant information about common seals
5. Visit to a co-operative society, co-operative credit societies, patpedhis, consumer co-operative stores and prepare a report of such visits.
6. Information about the businesses who are working in the private and public sector. 7. Effects on environment – (List of information of industries)
8. Information about the business groups who are famous in their social accountability (e.g. Tata, Reliance, etc.)
9. An interview of those persons who are aware of consumer welfare and their rights. 10. Information about a training institute, giving training to consumers about Their rights.
11. Prepare a report of any cottage industry doing planning on the basis of cooperation. 12. Information about students co-operative stores.
13. Plan and project report of any function.
14. An interview of a eminent businessman.
15. Detail information about the various services offered by a big business group.
16. Information of any two business groups who have secured I.S.O. 9000.
17. How will you plan against any natural calamity in your area.
18. How will you plan for keeping (maintaining) best highest Quality of the goods produced by group.
19. Information about the institute who gives career guidance.
20. Bad effects of various festivals on the environment.
N.B – Students are free to select any topic other than the topics given above; but that should be related to the topic of the syllabi.
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